An integrated decision support system for building asset management based on BIM and Work Breakdown Structure (2023)

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Journal of Building Engineering

Volume 34,

February 2021

, 101959

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Abstract

The asset management phase of a building constitutes approximately 60% of its total lifecycle costs. However, significant unnecessary expenses occur in current asset management practices because of the separation of the design and construction phases from operation and maintenance and the lack of an effective building asset management system covering all types of buildings with numerous components. Asset management decision-making is inherently a process that requires the assimilation of a multitude of data, processes, and software systems. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated decision support system for building asset management that addresses the systematization and coordination of lifecycle data. In this approach, a lifecycle work breakdown structure (WBS) for the asset management system is developed to provide a unified hierarchy to categorize and organize building assets. It is then used to develop the WBS-based integrated building lifecycleasset management model through a relational database management system (DBMS). Since building information modelling (BIM) is a rich information-based platform with large volumes of asset data needed, it is integrated with the WBS-based DBMS to achieve an effective integrated building asset management. A case study of an educational building is presented and discussed in the paper to demonstrate how the proposed automated solution is used for asset management. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by formalizing a WBS-based unified asset inventory hierarchy and mapping BIM data to the proposed hierarchy for effective asset management.

Introduction

Building asset management is a strategic and systematic process of operating, maintaining, upgrading, and expanding physical assets effectively throughout their lifecycle [1]. Asset management helps to achieve the required level of service while minimizing cost. Additionally, it helps to reduce risk and ensure an effective enhancement of capital over an asset's lifecycle [2]. Asset management is also beneficial because it can lead to increased knowledge of the assets, better operational decisions, improved emergency response, and greater ability to plan and pay for future repairs and replacements (EFCNMT, 2006). In fact, effective asset management is more than maintenance. The importance of asset management cannot be neglected because buildings could suffer serious problems, such as deterioration, premature failures and renewals, and possibly the need for replacement.

Building asset management is a highly challenging task since there are many types of buildings with numerous components that have different maintenance needs and requirements [[3], [4], [5]]. Asset management systems usually are used to assist industrial practitioners in “1) the assessment of the current condition, 2) prediction of the future deterioration, 3) selection of maintenance and repair strategies, 4) condition improvement after a repair, and 5) asset prioritization and fund allocation.” [6]. However, most building asset management systems use standard building classifications for categorizing and analyzing assets [7,8]. These standard systems were designed without taking into consideration asset management needs [9]. Besides, efficient building management systems must give more attention to all phases of the building lifecycle. As such, a reliable database that includes historical as-built information is necessary for asset management functions, including maintenance, condition assessment, and performance prediction. The lack of building lifecycle integration creates significant inefficiencies in asset management coordination [[9], [10], [11]].

Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been increasingly used for asset management functions. BIM is an information-rich model with large volumes of asset data that are a prerequisite for an effective operation and maintenance phase [12,13]. Nevertheless, several challenges have been identified in applying BIM for asset management, including the lack of technical alignment between BIM software tools and asset management processes and functions, as well as data interoperability [[14], [15], [16], [17], [18]]. In particular, Talebi [16] stated that: “BIM software tools presently are not applicable or ‘ready-packed’ to fit the asset management processes. In other words, the number of BIM tools supporting asset management processes by far is fewer than tools supporting the design stage. This issue causes ineffective administrative work routines and gives restricted support to the crew onsite. Lack of technology alignment also leads to a digital divide between the design and other stages.” Furthermore, attempts to enriching 3D models with facilities data in current BIM platforms can be challenging as it creates a discrepancy between the standard built-in classification systems and the facility data structure such as asset management inventory [19].

Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated decision support system for effective asset management using BIM and database management systems (DBMS). This system is developed based on a comprehensive work breakdown structure (WBS) framework to facilitate the integration of all life cycle phases for building asset management. The comprehensive WBS framework consists of eight levels, such as asset management system, building category, building major part, system, subsystem, floor, space function, and assets. It provides a unified hierarchy to categorize and organize building assets. BIM model is also mapped to such a WBS framework so that the proposed system is capable of addressing the discrepancy between the standard built-in classification systems of BIM and asset management. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by formalizing a WBS-based unified asset inventory hierarchy and mapping BIM data to the proposed hierarchy (i.e., addressing BIM-Asset Management interoperability) for effective asset management.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the literature on building asset management is reviewed to clarify the point of departure and demonstrate the rationale underlying this research. Subsequently, the research methodology is described in Section 3. Section 4 presents the WBS-based lifecycle model for asset management. The development of an integrated decision support system for building asset management is described in Section 5 and Section 6. A case study of an educational building is presented to validate the methodology and verify the prototype system in Section 7. The final section concludes by highlighting the research contribution of this paper.

Section snippets

Literature review

This section reviews the relevant work with respect to building asset management. To begin with, asset inventory management is first illustrated; then, how BIM has been used to support building asset management is discussed.

Research methodology

The objective of this research is to propose an integrated asset management system for owner organization (i.e., university) who embraces a cluster of various types of building facilities. The proposed system is intended to facilitate the integration of all building lifecycle phases through a unified WBS hierarchy for effective asset management. Toward this objective, a case study method is used in this research since it studies contemporary phenomena in its natural context and is best applied

WBS-BASED lifecycle model for asset management

Effective asset data management requires the development of an integrated data model so that information can flow smoothly during the lifecycle. This research utilizes a WBS to develop the building inventory system in consideration of the project life cycle. A WBS is regarded as one of the essential tools for defining and structuring project work [32]. Additionally, most organizations use WBS to break down a project into manageable work packages that have well-defined scopes [33]. A WBS breaks

A lifecycle relational database model for asset management

The development of an integrated building asset data management system requires designing a corresponding database schema that represents the various lifecycle phases of the building assets. Fig. 4 presents the building asset database schema. The relational database schema discussed in this section was created using an entity-relationship conceptual data model. Relations are expressed using the following format with the primary keys underlined: Relation-name (i.e., attribute 1, attribute 2, ….,

An integrated BIM-DBMS asset management system

The design of the BIM-DBMS asset management system includes the design of data acquisition, data storage, and data processing modules along with the user interface. Each module is described in the following sub-sections.

Case study

The CEAS building at WMU is used as a case study in this research to demonstrate how to use the proposed automated WBS-based asset management framework and decision support system. The CEAS was built in 2003 with a total space of 323,000 square feet on two floors that are dedicated to teaching and research. It includes seven computer teaching labs, 75 research and teaching laboratories, and several classrooms, offices, study lounges, and breakout rooms. The building also has a penthouse that

Discussions and conclusions

Building asset management is an integrated data-driven decision-making process that is needed for proactively maintaining and ensuring the long-term sustainability of building assets. This research contributes a building asset management system that was developed using a unified WBS hierarchy as the sole model for managing all university buildings during all phases of the building lifecycle. An integrated decision support system for building asset management using BIM and DBMS was then

Author statement

Maha Al-Kasasbeh: Methodology, Software, Investigation, Writing- Original draft preparation.

Osama Abudayyeh: Methodology, Writing- Reviewing and Editing, Supervision.

Hexu Liu: Methodology, Validation, Writing- Reviewing and Editing, Project administration, Supervision.

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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