Charging point connector types – Explained
Remember the fight between VHS and Betamax? Or Windows and Mac OS? There is always a competitive battle over standards with emerging technologies.
In the EV world, the manufacturers are slugging it out over connector types and standards. Basically, the plug and socket shapes differ from manufacturer to manufacturer. It’s like when you travel from the UK to Spain and can’t plug your hairdryer in.
Here are the main types of EV connector and the car manufacturers they are associated with:
Page Contents hide
1 Type 2 connectors
2 Type 1 connectors
3 CCS connectors
4 CHAdeMO connectors
5 Two Sockets in One Car
6 One Socket only
7 Electric Car Charging in China
Type 2 connectors
These connectors are the norm in Europe for charging your electric car at home, on a standard AC electricity supply.
Type 2 connectors are often called ‘Mennekes’ connectors, after the German manufacturer that invented the design.They have a 7-pin plug.
The EU recommends Type 2 connectors and they are sometimes referred to by the official standard 62196-2.
Most untethered, or ‘universal’, charging points in European homes will have a Type 2 socket. So, the cable you get out of your EV’s boot needs to have a Type 2 plug on one end to go into the universal charging point on your wall.
The other end of the cable plugs into your car’s socket. That socket will usually also be a Type 2 socket, though on older cars or certain new ones you will find a Type 1 socket (see below).
If you have a tethered charging point on your wall – rather than untethered – then just uncoil the cable wrapped around the charging point and stick the plug into your car’s socket (either Type 1 or Type 2).
In the UK, a Type 2 charging point on a single-phase electricity supply at home allows you to charge your car at a maximum of 7.36 kW. The formula is: 230 volts x 32 amps = 7,360 Watts, or 7.36 kW.
On a 3-phase electricity supply – the kind you might find at work – Type 2 charging points can charge at 22 kW. However, your car’s onboard circuitry may not allow for charging at such a fast speed.
Tesla has developed a modified Type 2 socket that also permits rapid DC charging.
Tesla’s adapted Type 2 socket, which can be found in the Model S and Model X in Europe, allows both charging at home on a normal house AC electricity supply, but also rapid charging at up to 120 kW using DC electricity.
These Tesla-only, DC electricity charging stations can be found, for example, at motorway service stations.They are known assuperchargers.
The latest versions of the Tesla Model Y, Model 3, Model S and Model X can all be charged at up to 250 kW at version 3 Tesla superchargers now being rolled out globally.
Type 1 connectors
This type of connector is mainly found in North America and is used for home charging on AC electricity supplies.
The official standard is SAE J1772 and it has a 5-pin plug.
You will also come across Type 1 connectors in Europe, but usually on older models of electric car, such as early Nissan Leafs and Kia Soul EVs, plus the Peugeot iOnand Citroen C-Zero.
However, the new Mitsubishi Outlander – a popular plug-in hybrid (PHEV) – does still have a Type 1 socket for AC charging.
You are unlikely to find a Type 1 charging point when you are out and about in Europe.
Practically all new charging points at supermarkets, hotels, etc., will be Type 2 untethered sockets.
However, this is not a problem. If you have an EV with a Type 1 socket, one of the cables in the boot will have a Type 1 plug at one end and a Type 2 plug at the other. You push the Type 1 plug into your car, and the Type 2 plug into the charging point. Sorted.
These sockets permit rapid DC charging, and are designed to charge up your EV very quickly when you are away from home.
CCS stands for Combined Charging System.
Nearly all manufacturers now use it on their new models including Hyundai, Kia, BMW, Audi, Mercedes, MG, Jaguar, Mini, Peugeot, Vauxhall / Opel, Citroen, Nissan, and VW. CCS has become the default standard for rapid charging.
Tesla is also now offering a CCS socket in Europe, starting with the Model 3 and thenModel Y.
Confusing bit coming up: The CCS socket is always combined with either a Type 2 or a Type 1 socket.
For example, in Europe, you will often come across the ‘CCS Combo 2’ connector (see picture) which has the Type 2 AC connector at the top and the CCS DC connector at the bottom.
When you want a rapid charge at a motorway service station, you pick up the tethered Combo 2 plug from the charging machine and insert it into your car’s charging socket. The bottom DC connector will permit the rapid charge, whereas the top Type 2 section isn’t involved in charging on this occasion.
Many rapid CCS chargepoints in the UK and Europe are rated at 50 kW DC, though recent CCS installations are normally 120 kW or 150 kW.
There are even CCS charging stations being installed now that offer an amazingly quick 350 kW charge. Look out for the Ionity network gradually installing these chargers across Europe.
Check the maximum DC charge rate for the electric car you are interested in. The new Peugeot e-208, for example, can charge at up to 100 kW DC (pretty fast). But some cars, like the Hyundai Ioniq 5 and Kia EV6, can charge ultra quick at 240 kW.
If you have a CCS Combo 2 socket in your car and want to charge at home on AC, you simply plug in your normal Type 2 plug into the upper half. The lower DC part of the connector remains empty.
These allow for rapid DC charging at public charging points away from home.
CHAdeMO is a rival to the CCS standard for rapid DC charging.
CHAdeMO socketsare found on the following new cars: Nissan Leaf (100% electric BEV) and the Mitsubishi Outlander (partially electric PHEV).
You will also find it on older EVs like the Peugeot iOn, Citroen C-Zero, Kia Soul EV and the Hyundai Ioniq.
Where you see a CHAdeMO socket in a car, you will always see another charging socket next to it. The other socket – either Type 1 or Type 2 – is for home AC charging. See ‘Two Sockets in One Car’ below.
In the connector wars, the CHAdeMO system is losing out to CCS at the moment in Europe (but see CHAdeMO 3.0 and ChaoJi below). More and more new EVs are favouring CCS.
However, CHAdeMO does have one major technical advantage: it is a bi-directional charger.
This means electricity can flow both from the charger into the car, but also the other way from the car into the charger, and then on to the house or grid.
This allows so-called “Vehicle to Grid” energy flows, or V2G. If you have the right infrastructure, you could then power your house using electricity stored in the car’s battery. Alternatively, you can send car electricity off to the grid and be paid for it.
Teslas have aCHAdeMO adapter so they can useCHAdeMO rapid chargers if there are no superchargers around.
Two Sockets in One Car
Most EVs nowadays have just one combined Combo socket via CCS.
However, if you have CHAdeMO, you will always have two sockets.
For example, the Nissan Leaf 40kWh EV has both a CHAdeMO socket for rapid DC charging and also a Type 2 socket for home AC charging next to it.
The photo shows the CHAdeMO socket on the left and the Type 2 socket on the right.
One Socket only
Car designers prefer fewer interruptions to their beautiful designs and so smaller, one socket charging solutions are on the rise.
For example, a combined CCS (rapid DC) / Type 2 (AC) socket is becoming very common.
The I-Pace, e-Niro, i3, Kona and Mini Electric all have just one socket. See photo.
The Renault ZoeQ90, Tesla Model S and Model X, on the other hand, have just one modified Type 2 socket that can handle both rapid and normal home charging.
Electric Car Charging in China
China is the biggest market – by far – for electric vehicles.
They have developed their own charging system, officially referred to by their Guobiao standards as: GB/T 20234.2 and GB/T 20234.3.
GB/T 20234.2 covers AC charging (single-phase only). The plugs and sockets look like Type 2, but the pins and receptors are reversed.
GB/T 20234.3 defines how rapid DC charging works. There is just one nationwide DC charging system in China, rather than competing systems like CHAdeMO, CCS, Tesla-modified, etc., found in other countries.
Interestingly, the Japanese-based CHAdeMO Association and the China Electricity Council (which controls GB/T) are working together on a new DC rapid system known as ChaoJi.In April 2020, they announced the final protocols called CHAdeMO 3.0. This will allow charging at over 500 kW (600 amps limit) and will also provide bidirectional charging.
Considering China is the largest consumer of EVs, and that many regional countries are likely to join including possibly India, theCHAdeMO 3.0 / ChaoJi initiative may well dethrone CCS over time as the dominant force in charging.
Even if you are still completely confused by connector types, the good news is that it doesn’t matter.
If you already have an electric car, and want a home charging point installed, you tell the charging point manufacturer what EV you have and they will tell you which models are appropriate.
If you’re going to get an electric car shortly, it’s the same process. Tell the charging point manufacturer which electric vehicle you are getting and they will go through the options.
Most charging point manufacturers will have more than one model of charger for your car (tethered, untethered, etc.). See our main Charging Point page for more details.
Want all the hassle taken out of choosing a charging point and local installer? Try our revolutionary Rightcharge tool.
There are two main types: AC charging stations and DC charging stations. Batteries can only be charged with direct current (DC) electric power, while most electricity is delivered from the power grid as alternating current (AC).
The mode 3 charging cable is a connector cable between the charging station and the electric car. In Europe, the type 2 plug has been set as the standard.
A Type 2 charging cable is the European-standard plug-type used by every new electric car. It features a seven-pin connection at both ends, which allows you to easily plug in to every home wallbox, and most public car chargers.
Electrical connectors are classified into three types based on their termination ends: board-to-board connectors, cable/wire-to-cable/wire connectors, and cable/wire-to-board connectors.
In order to charge an object, one has to alter the charge balance of positive and negative charges. There are three ways to do it: friction, conduction and induction.
(i) Conduction: The process of charging the uncharged object by bringing it in contact with another charged object is called charging by conduction. (ii) Induction: The process of charging the uncharged object by bringing another charged object near to it, but not touching it, is called charging by induction.
Charging systems deliver electrical energy to power your vehicle while it's running and sustains the battery's charge. Your vehicle's charging system consists of three parts: the battery, the alternator, and the voltage regulator. The battery supplies the necessary electrical power to start your engine.
FAST CHARGER (7kW)
The vast majority of these chargers are “untethered” - this means that you need to provide your own charging cable to use them. The socket on these chargers is usually a “Type 2” socket—which has 7 pins. Very often there will be two sockets per post, allowing two cars to charge simultaneously.
Type 1 is common for American vehicles, it's a single-phase plug and can charge at a speed of up to 7.4 kW. Type 2 is standard for European and Asian vehicles from 2018 onwards, it's a triple-phase plug and can charge at a level of up to 43 kW. CCS is a version of type 2 with two additional power contacts.
- USB-A. This is the standard connector, found on one end of almost every USB cable. ...
- USB-B. This is an older connector that's not used nearly as often nowadays. ...
- Mini-USB. As the name suggests, this is a smaller connection type that's good for mobile devices. ...
Type 1 is a single-phase plug and is standard for EVs from America and Asia. It allows you to charge your car at a speed of up to 7.4 kW, depending on the charging power of your car and grid capability.
Key Difference: Type A, B or C usually refers to the physical design of the plugs and the ports, while the versions determine the functionality and the speed of the USB cable. Technology is extremely fast-faced, and by the time you've mastered one, the world has probably moved on to something more advanced.
The connector is circular in shape, with a flattened top edge; the original design specification carried an output electric power of 3–50 kW for charging battery electric vehicles using single-phase (230V) or three-phase (400V) alternating current (AC), with a typical maximum of 32 A 7.2 kW using single-phase AC and 22 ...
Even though; I won't go to the party even though I was invited. While; While she was walking I was running. When; He had climbed many mountains when he was a boy.
The USB connector is the most common connector type. It's used for two things in computer networking: USB hubs and USB cables. If you have more than one USB device on your desk, a USB hub can help you connect them all without having to use several different cables.
A connector is a device that joins two pieces of equipment, wire, or piping together.
There are four methods by which charges can redistribute themselves to build up static electricity: by friction, by conduction, by induction, and by polarization. Charging by Induction: Electrons can react to the electric field of a charged object without touching the object itself.
Three ways electrons can be transferred are conduction, friction, and polarization. In each case, the total charge remains the same. This is the law of conservation of charge. Conduction occurs when there is direct contact between materials that differ in their ability to give up or accept electrons.
An electrical charge is created when electrons are transferred to or removed from an object. Because electrons have a negative charge, when they are added to an object, it becomes negatively charged. When electrons are removed from an object, it becomes positively charged.
What is Fast Charging? The technical name is USB 3.1 Power Delivery. The people friendly term is “Fast Charge” and makes it possible to charge devices at up to 100W. It means that you can charge your phone 2-4 times faster now.
As a general rule, a charger needs to be at least 18W from a single port to deliver fast charging. You can also check for the USB Power Delivery and Quick Charge logos on packaging.
If you want the fastest battery charge possible for your phone, you need the charger that supplies as many watts as your phone can handle at once. Most of the time—but not always—the charger that came bundled with your phone will fit the bill.
Definition of point charge
noun. an electric charge considered to exist at a single point, and thus having neither area nor volume.
There are two types of electric charges; positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like charges repel and unlike attract. Q. How will you charge a glass rod by the method of friction?
There are two types of charge: positive charge (exhibited by protons), and negative charge (exhibited by electrons).
to accuse someone of something, esp. to officially accuse someone of a crime: He was charged with resisting arrest.
The battery is charged by an alternator on modern cars, or by a dynamo on earlier ones. Both are types of generator , and are driven by a belt from the engine . The alternator consists of a stator - a stationary set of wire coil windings, inside which a rotor revolves.
A battery charger, or recharger, is a device that stores energy in a battery by running an electric current through it. The charging protocol (how much voltage or current for how long, and what to do when charging is complete) depends on the size and type of the battery being charged.
“Though all EVs use the same standard plugs for Level 1 and Level 2 charging, standards for the DC charging may vary among manufacturers and regions.”
The plug-in station (indoor installation only) uses a NEMA 6-50 outlet with the ground pin facing up. For outdoor installation, use the hardwired station.
Rapid AC chargers provide power at 43 kW (three-phase, 63A) and use the Type 2 charging standard. Rapid AC units are typically able to charge an EV to 80% in 20-40 minutes depending the model's battery capacity and starting state of charge.
If you typically drive no more than 30-40 miles per day, Level 1 may be sufficient. That's because you can charge while you sleep. You simply plug-in (or program your car) to start charging at bedtime, and by the time you rise and shine, your battery is fully re-charged.
A USB-C cable is a recent type of USB connector that's easier to use and more powerful than older USB types. USB-C cables can be used to quickly charge many popular devices, including the MacBook Pro and Nintendo Switch, and transfer data faster than any other USB type.
While USB-A could only support up to 2.5 watts and 5 volts, USB-C now supports 100 watts and 20 volts easily enough for larger devices. The practical benefits of this include pass-through charging; effectively a USB hub that powers laptops, and also charges other devices simultaneously.
USB C Car Charger, 3.4A Fast Charging Car Adapter+3ft Type C Cable for Samsung Galaxy S22 S21 S20 S10 Note 20 A10E A20 A50 A51 A01 A71 A11, LG Stylo 6/5/4 G8 G7 V60 ThinQ Moto G8 G7 Google Pixel 4 3a.
Also known as USB standard A connector, the USB A connector is primarily be used on host controllers in computers and hubs. USB-A socket is designed to provide a "downstream" connection intended for host controllers and hubs, rarely implemented as an "upstream" connector on a peripheral device.
Where CCS connectors differ from CHAdeMO, is that they allow for AC/DC charging on the same port. CHAdeMO-equipped EVs require an additional J1772 connector cord to achieve Level 1 or 2 charging.
A USB Type-C charger is an industry-standard connector used to address the need for a wide range of display, data transmission, and charging applications. Whether you have larger devices like laptops or smaller ones like phones, you can charge and transfer data between them using a single cable.
Connectors are parts or devices used for electrically connecting or disconnecting circuits etc. They can connect and disconnect by hands or with simple tools without requiring special tools or processes such as soldering.
This action helps to reinforce the automotive manufacturers' convergence on a single standard, reduces customer confusion, reduces capital and operating costs, and ultimately is expected to lead to increased EV adoption.” Those are all good things if we want to move the EV revolution forward.
Nissan and Mitsubishi cars use the Japanese standard CHAdeMO, and virtually every other electric vehicle uses the CCS charging standard.
Short answer: No. Long answer: They are fundamentally incompatible due to the handshaking and physical locking mechanism. Chademo provides the physical lock on the charger side, and CCS does it on the car side. The only way is to add a small computer between the CCS side and the chademo side to translate the signaling.
How Fast is a Level 2 EV Charger? While a Level 1 charger will typically get 4 miles of driving range per hour of charge, a Level 2 charger will get an average of 32 miles of driving range per hour of charge. This means that you're charging up to 8 times faster with a Level 2 charging station.